Obesity in the World
We know that obesity causes over 50 diseases. In United States, obesity rate constitutes almost %61 of its population. It has been estimated that this rate will be %95 in 2039. In a conducted research, approximately %40 of women and %20 of men are found to be over weight in Turkey.
We know that obesity caused by many reasons in Europe, China, and Japan and in almost every country. Developing technology affects negatively and increases human weight because TVs and radios keep us sitting, elevator prevents us from using stairs, cars and buses prevent us from walking. Bottom line, all the calories we took are transformed into fat when we did not consume calories that we should; therefore, we gain weight.
Working men and women have to eat fast which is they have to eat sandwiches included high calorized food like cheese, sausages, mayonnaise, and ketchup. Therefore, consuming such food fast causes people to gain weight as well.
â€œDo we live for food or do we eat to live?â€
However, it is a fact that eating is one of the biggest pleasures of life. But here, we should know its benefits and harms. One of the most important issues about nutrition is definitely weight problem. All of the over-weighted people are not happy with their bodies. This issue should be perceived as a health problem not an aesthetic concern.
In short, healthy nutrition should be a habit that we should have from birth till death not a preparation program starts in spring and lasts until the summer. Losing weight and keeping the body weight balanced is very important. To do this, one should know right nutrition rules. Therefore, efficient and balanced nutrition are valid for all of us. We should not be following so called diets like Sweden, Norway or famous people diets.
The following elements are the most important ones for peopleâ€™s growth and development:
1. Carbohydrates (sugar, cereal, starch)
2. Fats (grease or oil)
3. Proteins (meat, milk, yogurt, egg, soy bean)
4. Minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc)
5. Vitamins (A, B, C, D, E etc.)
They are the nutrition sugar included in plants and their most important job is to provide energy to the body. Carbohydrates should be the %50-60 of daily nutrition in diets. However, the way how we consume them is important. Bread and sugar are both carbohydrates but instead of directly absorbed sugar into blood, more saturating and more slowly absorbed food should be preferred.
It is the most energy included nutritional element which is found in plant and animal tissues. It has two times more energy than protein and sugar have. (1 gram fat has 9 calories. 1 gram sugar and protein have 4 calories together) The most important jobs of fat are providing energy, delaying gastric emptying, provides A, D, E, K vitamins to be taken into the body and protects skin to lose temperature. Fat is also guards the organs. When we are on a diet, %25-30 of the food that we consume should be fat. However, most important part is we should consume oil not over from 1 soup spoon. In other words, olive oil, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, soya oil, hazelnut oil can be consumed. Since grease fat has more cholesterol, they should be consumed little and carefully or we should write off them slowly.
Proteins consist of little units called amino acids. They are found in almost all of the animal and herbal food. Proteins constitute the core of DNA and RNA. It provides the development of bones, muscles, nerves and skin tissues. It is necessary for hemoglobin production which gives color to blood cells and blood. Besides, they protect us from diseases. In a healthy nutrition, %15 of food should be protein. If not consumed enough, growth and development of body stops. It is a necessary nutrition element that should be consumed from motherâ€™s womb to death. It should not be lacking from diet of pregnant women and nursing mothers. Protein consuming should be as eggs, fat-free oil, yogurt, small amount of cheese. Again, white meat should be preferred as chicken and fish (skin should not be consumed as they are high calorized.) and red meat should be consumed from its fat-free parts (it includes fat anyway). Meat kinds should be consumed as 100 gram and not over than once in a week.
Minerals are compulsory for cells to work right. %4 of our body consists of minerals. Calcium and phosphor have a big role in bone development (Especially women have more calcium need in pregnancy and menopause). Milk, yogurt, vegetables with green leaves and dried fruits are rich in terms of calcium. Iron is included in erythrocyte in blood cells. If not consumed in diets, anemia occurs. Iron is mostly included in egg, grape, molasses, legume, nut, peanut, sesame and green vegetables.
Compulsory substances for life. They are included in both animal and herbal food. However, some cooking and keeping conditions can cause vitamins to be destroyed. For example, cooking long in pressure cooker and keeping cooked food in refrigerator over than 1 week. Vitamins can be classified as fat soluble and water soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins:
Vitamin A: Provides to see in darkness, to growth. Protects against cancer and many diseases.
Vitamin D: Has a role in producing bone tissue.
Vitamin E: Has a role in producing tissue and blood, protects cell membrane and has a role of nerve system to work.
Vitamin K: has an important role in blood clotting.
Water soluble vitamins:
B group vitamins: have a role in the activities of enzymes and carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolisms. They can be used in some neurologic traumas. They have a role in blood producing.
Vitamin C: It is effective on blood veins in connective tissues. It strengths the immune system. It has a role in recovery of scars and inflammation. It is necessary for metabolism and it decreases cholesterol level.
It is the second element after oxygen for human life. We can resist lack of water hardly 2-3 days. %60 of a human body is water. It does not have energy. People who are on diet should consume 2-3 liter of liquid and %80 of it must be water. If much amount of tea and coffee is consumed (especially when hungry), it causes sickness. One can eat something to get rid of the sickness and it causes not to lose weight. Especially on a diet, salt amount must be reduced because overly consumed salt holds water in the body and it causes edema. Therefore, you cannot lose weight.
Issues That Need Attention on A Diet
1. It is not true that consuming hot water speeds up the metabolism and leads to weight loss. However, if the bowels are working slowly, warm water should be consumed after eating 2-3 pieces of dried apricots.
2. It is not also true that squeezing lemon into hot water ease losing weight.
3. Believing that drinking water during eating is wrong.
4. Believing that weight loss creams are working is wrong.
5. Believing that some of products that sold under the name of weight loss tea which includes laxative (relaxes bowels) or diuretic effect is wrong. These kinds of teas and medicine should only be used under control of a doctor or given by a doctor. As a result they can cause unfixable bowel disease, dropping blood pressure or muscle cramps in the night.
6. Drinking less water during weight loss is wrong.
7. Weight loss does not happen every week. In some weeks, even though the diet continues, one cannot lose weight that week as a result of slowed metabolism. Women cannot lose weight for 3 days before and 2 days after menstrual period due to water holding in the body.
8. Weigh oneself in every hour of a day is wrong. Metabolism can stop due to the stress of being weighed.
9. Vegetable and fruits must absolutely be consumed in a diet. Their peels should not be peeled off (especially sugar-rich juices should be avoided).
10. If taken energy equals consumed energy, one can neither gain weight nor lose weight.
11. In a diet, 1 or 2 slices of whole-wheat bread should be eaten.
12. One should not skip a meal. If one do not have breakfast habit, you should eat a fruit. Food should be consumed frequently but little by little; therefore, one will not strive for high calorized food.
13. One can reward himself once in a week during a diet (hamburger, pizza).
14. Milk puddings or fruit desserts can be consumed once in a week. Light puddings can be consumed 2 or 3 bowls in a week.
15. Vegetables should be cooked in low level of water (vitamins are in the water).
16. Salads should immediately be consumed after prepared.
17. Fresh juices should be consumed without keeping for a long time.
18. While cooking a milky dessert, sugar should be added when it is about to be cooked.
19. Water of yogurt should not be poured since it is rich in terms of vitamin B2 and folic acid.
20. Covering food with paper or keeping them in detergent boxes is not right.
21. Pasta and legumes should be cooked in low level of water and the water should not be poured.
22. â€œChubby kid is robust and healthyâ€ is wrong.
23. Inferiority complex can develop in fat children easily. Being unsuccessful can increase. Therefore, parents have a big role in this kind of a situation.
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