We know that obesity causes more than 50 diseases. In the United States, obesity accounts for almost 61% of the population. It is assumed that this rate will reach 95% in 2039. In a study, about 40% of our women over the age of 25 in Turkey and about 20% of our men are in the overweight category.
We know that obesity has many causes in Europe, China, Japan and almost every country. Here, the developing technology negatively affects and increases the body weight of the person. Because
television and radios prevent us from sitting all the time, elevators prevent us from using stairs, buses and cars prevent us from walking. As a result, when we cannot consume the energy we need to spend, the calories we take become too much and turn into fat, which causes us to gain weight.
The fact that both men and women working have to eat very quickly, which means that high-calorie items such as cheese, sausage, mayonnaise, ketchup, which are usually put between bread or sandwiches, come together, and their rapid consumption also causes people to gain weight.
“Do we eat to live; Or do we live to eat?”
But we must say that eating is one of life's greatest pleasures. But here we need to know the benefits and harms very well. One of the most important issues related to nutrition is undoubtedly the weight problem. Anyone who is overweight is not satisfied with this state of their body. This situation should be perceived as health rather than an aesthetic concern for our women.
In short, healthy eating should be a habit that we must adopt continuously from birth to death, not just as a summer preparation program starting in the spring months. It is important to lose weight in a healthy way and to keep the body weight in balance. The first rule for this is to have the right nutrition knowledge. Therefore, adequate and balanced nutrition is valid for all of us. We have to put aside quack diets like the Swedish or Norwegian diet or the famous people diet.
Let's take a look at the most important nutrients in human growth and development: 1-Carbohydrates (sugar, grain, starch, etc.)
2-Oils (solid or liquid)
3-proteins (meat, milk, yogurt, eggs, soybeans, etc.)
4-Minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, etc.)
5-Vitamins (A,B,C,D,E, etc.)
The most important task of these is to provide energy to the body, the nutrient sugar found in plants. In weight loss diets, 50-60% of the daily regimen should be carbohydrates. But the type of reception is important. Bread and sugar are both carbohydrates. However, instead of sugar, which is absorbed directly into the blood, in the regimen, more hearty and slower absorbed bread should be preferred.
It is a nutrient found in plant and animal tissues and has the most energy. It has more than twice as much energy as protein and sugar. it melts and therefore it is taken into the body, prevents heat loss under the skin. It also acts as a protector to the internal organs. While dieting, 25-30% of the food we take should be fat. However, the most important amount of this should not exceed one tablespoon per day, provided that we should consume liquid oil. In other words, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, hazelnut oil. When fats are high in cholesterol, they should be consumed very carefully and sparingly, or we should gradually remove them from our lives.
Proteins are made up of small units called amino acids. It is found in almost all animal and plant foods to a greater or lesser extent. Proteins form the building blocks of the cell's DNA and RNA. It provides the development of bone, muscle, nerve and skin tissues. It is necessary for the production of blood cells and hemoglobin, which gives blood its color. It also helps us defend against diseases. In a balanced diet, 10-15% of the diet should be protein. If it is taken insufficiently, the growth and development of the body also stops. It is a necessary nutrient from the mother's womb until she dies. Pregnant and lactating women should not be missing from the diet. Protein intake should be eggs, skim milk, yogurt, cheese in small quantities. Again, white meat, chicken and fish (except for the skin, because it is high in cholesterol.) should be preferred. Red meat should not be consumed more than once a week, around 100 grams of lean parts (still contains fat).
Minerals are essential for the correct functioning of cells. 4% of our body is made up of minerals. Calcium and phosphorus for bone development (especially pregnant and menopausal women need more calcium). Milk, yoghurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits are rich in calcium. Iron is found in the structure of red blood cells, especially blood cells. If it is deficient in diets, iron deficiency anemia (anemia) occurs. Iron is most abundant in eggs, grapes, molasses, legumes, hazelnuts, peanuts, sesame and green vegetables.
They are absolutely necessary substances for life. They are found in both plant and animal foods. However, some cooking and storage conditions can cause vitamins to be lost in that food item. For example, cooking in a pressure cooker for a long time, keeping a cooked food in the refrigerator for more than 1 week. Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin A: It allows us to see in the twilight, It provides growth, it has preventive properties against cancer and diseases.
Vitamin D: Takes a role in the production of bone tissue.
Vitamin E: Takes part in tissue formation, protects cell membranes, plays a role in the functioning of the nervous system, takes part in blood formation
Vitamin K plays an important role in blood coagulation. Soluble in Water:
Group B: They take part in the activities of auxiliary enzymes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. It can be used for therapeutic purposes in some neurological cases. They are involved in the production of blood cells.
Vitamin C: It is effective in strengthening the blood vessels of the connective tissue. It strengthens the immune system. It plays a role in the healing of wounds and inflammations. It is necessary for metabolism, reduces the level of cholesterol.
It is the second element necessary for human life after oxygen. We can only withstand the thirst for 2-3 days. Man is 60% water He has absolutely no energy. Dieters should take 2-3 liters of fluid per day. It should be 80% water. If large amounts of tea and coffee are drunk (especially on an empty
stomach), some substances in it cause nausea. If you eat other things to suppress this nausea, this time you will take more calories and maybe not lose weight that week. Especially during the diet, salt should be reduced absolutely. Because excess salt water retention causes edema in the body. Therefore, it causes us to lose weight.
ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED IN DIET
1- It is not true that drinking hot water accelerates metabolism and causes weight loss. However, when the intestines are less active, lukewarm water can be drunk on 2-3 dried apricots in the morning.
2- It is also wrong to think that if you squeeze lemon on hot water in the morning and drink it, you will lose weight.
3- It is wrong to believe that weight loss stops if you drink water between meals. 4- It is wrong to believe that weight loss creams make you lose weight.
5- It is wrong to believe that some laxative (intestinal relaxant) or diuretic teas (diuretic) under the name of slimming teas in the market make you lose weight. This type of tea or medicine should only be given by a doctor and followed up. After all, they can cause irreparable intestinal diseases or diuretics can cause low blood pressure or nighttime leg muscle cramps.
6- It is wrong to drink less water while losing weight.
7- Do not lose weight every week. Even if the diet does not deteriorate for some weeks, weight is not lost that week as a result of the slowing of the metabolic rate. Again, women may not be able to lose weight until 3 days after the menstrual period and 2 days after the end of the menstrual period due to the body's water retention.
8- It is not right to be weighed at almost every hour of the day. Because the stress of weighing can sometimes bring the metabolism to a standstill.
9- Vegetables and fruits should be consumed in the diet. The shells should not be peeled. (especially sugary fruit juices should be avoided.)
10- If the energy taken is equal to the energy expended, we neither gain nor lose weight.
11- While dieting, 1 or 2 thin slices of wholemeal bread should be eaten preferably.
12- Meals should not be skipped. Even if we do not have a habit of breakfast in the morning, we should eat a fruit and go out. We should eat less often so that we don't attack other high-calorie foods with hunger.
13- While dieting, we can reward ourselves once a week without exaggerating. (Hamburger, pizza, lahmacun)
14- Once a week, milk or fruit dessert (such as custard pudding, Kaskul Kazandibi or quince, pumpkin dessert) can be eaten 2-3 bowls of Light puddings a week.
15- We should cook the vegetables in little water and not pour the water (vitamins are in the water) 16- We should eat the salad immediately after preparing it.
17- Fresh fruit juices should be drunk without waiting.
18- When making a dessert with milk, sugar should be added when it is close to taking it from the fire.
19- Yoghurt water should never be poured. It is rich in B 2 and folic acid. In addition, this green colored water also lowers cholesterol.
20- It is not right to wrap the nutrients in newsprint or store them in detergent boxes.
21- Pasta, dry legumes should be cooked in little water and the water should not be poured. 22- “A chubby child is a strong child and is healthy” is wrong.
23- Inferiority complex may develop more quickly in obese children. Failure may also increase in classes. As they say, "a tree bends when it is wet". Therefore, parents have a great responsibility here.